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May 2000, although this had resulted in gaining a useful small number of contacts for in-
depth study, responses to the questionnaire were still minimal. It was thus decided to send
‘packages’ as described and follow up as appropriate to all schools.
3.4.4. Analysis of Survey Data
The survey was intended to provide scope for discussion rather than tables of statistics or
hypothesis testing. In general, analysis involved compiling tables of frequencies.
However, responses to Question (4), detailing the introduction of energy, were subjected
to statistical tests to allow more precision in formulating arguments.

2
Responses for each statement on Question (4) were subjected to one sample χ tests to
provide a measure of the randomness or otherwise of schools reporting to introduce topics
2
and concepts represented by the statements. This compares data with the theoretical χ
distribution (Diamantopoulos and Schlegelmilch, 1997, p154). The reasoning was that if a
statement was introduced tightly in a specific year across all schools, then the one sample
2 2
χ test would return a small p-value, showing that data was significantly close to the χ
distribution. The interpretation would be that the statement was significantly tight in its
introduction in a particular year group. If a statement appeared to have no pattern as to
when it was introduced i.e. substantial percentages of introduction in many year groups,
then the test would return a large p-value, showing an insignificant difference from an
expected distribution of equal percentages in all categories. The interpretation would be
that the statement was random in its introduction.

2
A two sample χ test was applied to compare the statements relating to the introduction of
the higher conceptual parts of energy. This was done to highlight any difference between
2
the introduction of aspects relating to energy dissipation and otherwise. The two sample χ
test is a common means of ascertaining significant differences between groups comprising
nominal data (e.g. Diamantopoulos and Schlegelmilch, 1997, p174).
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