higher level physics, science education literature and school resources; and the wealth of
paradigmatic issues pertaining to the research. The study utilised persistent observations
and triangulation of observations from different sources.
Transferability / external validity is a criterion that qualitative studies historically have
problems demonstrating. It is reinforced that this study comprises one set of themes in a
possible set of many. Furthermore, the report may be construed as a reconstruction of the
data through the particular lenses of the study. Robson (1993) points out that it is
inappropriate to make statistical generalisations to a population from a qualitative study.
This study has the potential for transferability in that throughout the report, every aspect
was clearly exposed. Subsequent readers are invited to relate the findings to the whole
design. This is concordant with the description of transferability by Lincoln and Guba
This study demonstrates dependability based on the systematic, clear and well documented
nature of the procedures, as described. The study demonstrates confirmability in that the
procedures clearly show how raw data were transcribed, coded, condensed and organised
into the themes. Furthermore, the design of the main study was clearly described in terms
of its evolution from the pilot studies.