⇒ Do pupils learn energy well being introduced to it in a manner
concordant with recommendations in academic literature?
⇒ Development of the energy concept and its modelling at KS3 in
problematic areas e.g.:
◊ a need for an accepted framework to represent energy transfers;
◊ a need for a consistent set of terms within the topic of ‘heat’;
◊ persuasion that energy dissipation can be expressed simply;
◊ how can energy transfers explain the KE-PE interaction without
resorting to fields?
◊ Expression of energy in chemical word equations so as not to
suggest it is a product or ingredient;
◊ dealing with energy from exothermic chemical reactions: how
does the fuel-oxygen system reconcile with the higher level
negative potential energy and that chemical bonds exist as an
absence of energy?