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A word equation for the process is (ibid., p106):
fuel (wood) + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy
(‘Energy’ is written in a different colour at the end of the equation, almost as a
product, but not quite the same in nature as the water and the carbon dioxide)

The Year 9 energy unit (Johnson et al., 1993c) begins by reinforcing points made in the
previous units, with the addition of the efficiency principle by considering 100J input and
tracing the useful and non-useful energy. The rest of this unit is primarily concerned with
conduction, convection and radiation. The term ‘thermal’ energy is introduced, to be
synonymous with ‘heat’. Its meaning is to be taken as internal energy U. Conversely,
energy on the move in the processes of conduction, convection and radiation is just termed
as energy.

The Core Science series for KS3 comprises two books, 1 and 2 (Milner et al., 1998a,
1998b). Energy is introduced in book 1 through the context of ‘energy for life’ and ‘all
plants and animals need energy.’ The joule is introduced through a consideration of the
calorific value of foods. Energy does not appear explicitly until the ‘Everyday Materials’
unit in the context of heating:
… for an ice cube to melt it must take in energy. It takes this energy from
the air or the dish it is on. To make the ice melt we have to make it hotter,
so we have to transfer energy to the ice from its surroundings. This makes
the surroundings colder. Milner et al. (1998a, p109), bold as original

The energy topic in Core Science 1 begins by reinforcing our need for energy. Then, the
model of transferring energy is explicated in the example of the light bulb – energy is
transferred to the bulb by electricity, the bulb transfers energy to its surroundings by light.
Their framework for an energy transfer is:

Store of energy (transferred to) device (transferred to) [vague] form of
[or transducer] energy

Example for an electric fan:
Electricity (transferred to) fan (transferred to) movement
Ibid., p237


A flow diagram for a conventional coal fired power station is (ibid., p240):
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