Thousand million litres
Sources: EarthTrends Environmental 16,5
Information Portal, World Resources Institute, 2007 (using Worldwatch 2006; US Department of Energy, 2006); REN21, Renewables 2006 2,0 global status report, Worldwatch Institute; F. O. Ethanol 0,5
Licht world ethanol & biofuels report 2005. Biodiesel 0,1
beer and wine-making. Ethanol can run in an ordinary petrol car engine without modifi cations up to a 10 percent blend level (some manufacturers warrant 5 per cent only, some warrant up to 15 per cent). In Brazil, where about 40 per cent of all fuel used is produced from sugar cane, all cars operate with engines slightly modifi ed to run on blends up to 25 percent ethanol. A car engine can be further modified (in its design and configuration) to be “flex fuel”, that is to operate on fuel blends of anywhere
from 0 up to 85 per cent ethanol.
Biodiesel is produced from oil, which can be sourced from oil seed crops such as rapeseed, soy bean, sunflower or jatropha and from waste oil such as cooking oil. Water and other contaminants are removed from the oil and the fatty acid content present in the oil is separated and transformed. Biodiesel can be blended with conventional diesel in vehicles, usually in a 5 per cent blend (B5).In some countries it is sold in blends up to 20 percent (B20) or in pure form (B100) that some specially modifi ed diesel vehicles can handle.