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An irregular bead width is a surface imperfection, which is often referenced in
application standards as. “The weld bead should be regular along its length”
Undercut can be defined as a depression at the toe of a weld in a previous deposited weld
or base metal caused by welding. Undercut is principally caused by an incorrect welding
technique, including to high a welding current, to slow a travel speed in conjunction with
the welding position i.e. 2F/2G or PB/PC. It is often found in the top toe of fillet welds
when attempting to produce a leg length >9mm in one run. Undercut can be considered a
serious imperfection, particularly if sharp as again it causes high stress concentrations. It
is gauged in its severity by length, depth and sharpness.
Base metal, surface undercut
Base metal, “top toe” undercut
Welding Inspection of Steels WIS 5 3.8
Section 03 Welding Imperfections
Rev 09-09-07 Copyright  2007 TWI Middle East
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